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Film still from Black Fury, based on the short story by Michael Musmanno, 1935.
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A well dressed man and woman, with a crowd behind them, speak to a police officer.

Credit: Courtesy of Charles Hardy

Outraged by the death of striking coal miner John Barkoski from a beating by Pennsylvania coal and iron police, Michael Musmanno, then a state legislator, wrote a short story, "Jan Volkanik" that in 1935 became a Hollywood film starring Paul Muni. In 1935, Musmanno, now a judge, expanded his short story into a novel with the same name as the film.

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