Teach PA History
Kill the Indian, Save the Man!
Further Reading

Adams, David Wallace. Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1995.

Adams writes a comprehensive book on federal Indian policy and at the same time provides good accounts of the people involved with the boarding schools. Very well researched and documented, this book examines the Carlisle Indian Industrial School in context with the general boarding school movement.

Archuleta, Margaret L. and others. Away from Home: American Indian Boarding School Experiences, 1879-2000.. Phoenix, AZ: Heard Museum, 2000.

Originally written to correspond with an exhibit of Indian Boarding School experiences at the Heard Museum in Arizona, this book includes written and photograph memories of Carlisle Indian School of Pennsylvania, Sherman Indian School, Riverside, California, and Flandreau Indian School, South Dakota.

Child, Brenda J. Boarding School Seasons, American Indian Families 1900-1940. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2000.

This 154-page, easy-to-read book sheds light on boarding school concerns specifically through the personal stories and family vignettes of Red Lake Ojibwes at Flandreau School.

Coleman, Michael C. American Indian Children at School, 1850-1930. Mississippi: University Press of Mississippi, 1993.

This book thoroughly explores the education of Indians from 1850-1930. Included are bibliographic references to Native American autobiographies and biographies.

Hill, Edward E., ed.. The National Archives of the United States Preliminary Inventories Number 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Volumes I and II. Washington: NARS, 1965.

The Nation Archives holds a vast amount of primary sources on Indian Boarding Schools–e.g., student correspondence, enrollment records, Outing Reports, medical records, and photographs. This book is guide to researching these files.

Hoxie, Frederick E. A Final Promise: The Campaign to Assimilate the Indian, 1880-1920. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2001.

This 350-page book explores the American Indian-white relations and the U.S. government assimilation campaign from 1880 to 1920.

Newcombe, Jack. The Best of the Athletic Boys: The White Man's Impact on Jim Thorpe. Garden City: Doubleday, 1975.

A look at the impressive athletic successes of the students–Jim Thorpe and others–at Carlisle Indian School.

Trafzer, Clifford E. and others, ed.. Boarding School Blues: Revisiting American Indian Educational Experiences.. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2006.

Ten chapters shed light on the boarding school experiences of indigenous people. Two chapters are specifically about Carlisle Indian Industrial School: Chapter Three: The Man on the Bandstand at Carlisle Indian Industrial School: What He Reveals About the Children's Experiences by Jacqueline Fear-Segal and Chapter Four: Putting Lucy Pretty Eagle to Rest by Barbara Landis.

Witmer, Linda F. The Indian Industrial School: Carlisle, Pennsylvania 1879-1918.. Camp Hill, PA: Plank’s Suburban Press, 1993.

Photographic essay with hundreds of photographs surveying the school throughout its existence, with emphasis given to the years Pratt lead the school. Foreword by George P. Horse Capture, Sr. and notes on photographs and photographers by Richard Tritt, Photo Curator of the Cumberland County Historical Society. It also contains registers of students, staff, Indian chiefs, and visitors of the school.

Web Sites

An Indian Boarding School Photograph Gallery

Photographs and captions online. Five are related to the Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Two of these images you will recognized from the lesson. This gallery is connected to a website on poet Louise Erdrich and her work.

Carlisle Indian Industrial School Research Pages

Provides a wealth of information about the school, particularly historical background and photographs

Carlisle Indian Industrial School Website

This website provides a wealth of information about the Carlisle Indian Industrial School, its history, and attendees. Included are helpful links to primary and secondary sources, enrollment of tribes at the school, and bibliographical information about its most famous athlete Jim Thorpe.

Carlisle Indian School Bibliography

Located within the Cumberland County Historical Society website, this page provides specific details on the collection of Carlisle Indian School Resources housed and available at the Society.

PA State Archives-MG 216-Scope and Content-Carlisle Indian School Collection

After a brief introduction to the subject matter of the content, this website link describes the collection of Carlisle Indian School material at the Pennsylvania State Archives. The collection contains various materials describing the function of life at the Carlisle Indian School. The publications discuss the founding, the Outing system, and the most famous athlete of the school, Jim Thorpe.

PBS-THE WEST-Events from 1870 to 1880

This website provides much information on the history of westward expansion and American Indian-white relations. This link was chosen to include 1879, the date the Carlisle Indian Industrial School was created, so readers can contextualize the event with other happenings during the decade.

Photographs from Indian Boarding Schools

This webpage provides a list of links to photographs of boarding schools. Other general site topics include Indian stereotypes, Native American writings and responses, and legal issues (such as cultural heritage and copyright issues).

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