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Marie-Antoinette et ses enfants,by Elisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, 1787, Versailles.
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This oil on canvas painting depicts Marie Therese Charlotte de France, Madame Royale, and her brother, Louis-Joseph, Le Dauphin, standing. Louis-Joseph died of natural causes early in the year that the revolution began. The next younger child, Louis-Charles, Duc de Normandie, shown on the Queen's lap, then became the second Dauphin. The empty cradle represents a child that passed away, Princess Sophie.

Credit: This painting still hangs at Versailles.

After the dethroning of King Louis XVI and his arrest in 1791, a group of American investors and Royalist sympathizers, including Philadelphia merchant Stephen Girard, decided to create a haven for Queen Mary Antoinette and French royalists in the wilds of northern Pennsylvania. On October 16, 1793, Mary Antoinette was beheaded in Paris. The next spring a small band of French refugees arrived at Azilum, a new settlement of about 30 rough-hewn log homes.

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