Slavic coal miner, in Pittsburgh bituminous coal district, 1910.
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Head and shoulders of a miner covered it soot and wearing a miners hat with light.

Credit: NYPL digital gallery, New York Public Library

At the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, western Pennsylvania boasted the nation's largest population of east European immigrants. Pittsburgh and the surrounding steel and mining towns hosted thriving communities of Slovaks, Czechs, Rutherians, Hungarians, Poles, Slavs, and other eastern Europeans.

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