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President Theodore Roosevelt, Wilkes-Barre, PA, 1902.
flipFlip to William B. Wilson, National Secretary Treasurer of the United Mine Workers of America circa 1908.
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Cardinal Gibbons enters President Theodore Roosevelt's carriage, Wilkes-Barre, PA, 1905.

Credit: Department of Environmental Protection

Governor William A. Stone’s support of the coal mine operators heavy-handed refusal to negotiate with Pennsylvania’s striking anthracite miners in 1902 infuriated President Theodore Roosevelt. When the stoppage threatened a nationwide coal shortage, Roosevelt set up a Commission that arbitrated a resolution in favor of the miners. This was the first time in American history that the federal government interceded in a labor dispute on behalf of the workers.

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