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Rotary cement kilns of the Keystone Portland Cement Company, circa 1940.
flipFlip to Rotary cement kilns under construction at the Keystone Portland Cement Company, circa 1940.
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Image of rotary cement kilns inside of a factory.

Credit: From Pennsylvania and Its Manifold Activities, 1912.

Developed in Pennsylvania around 1890, the first successful rotary kilns made about 20 tons of portland cement a day. By 1905 the largest rotary kilns, now fueled by pulverized coal from nearby mines rather than oil, were producing 190 tons a day. They soon accounted for nearly half the world production of portland cement.

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