Royal Oak Party supporters, Philadelphia, PA, October 24, 1938.
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Photograph of two picketers with signs.

Credit: Courtesy of Temple University, Urban Archives, Philadelphia, Pa.

Disillusioned by the failures of both Republicans and Democrats to end the Great Depression, Pennsylvanians across the state joined third-party political movements that ranged from the American Communist Party on the left to the American Bund and other fascist groups on the right. In 1936, Father Charles Coughlin, who railed against President Roosevelt on his nationally broadcast radio program, formed the Royal Oak Party, which supported Congressman William Lemke for president.

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