Story Bibliography
The French and Indian War in Pennsylvania Bibliography
Further Reading

. Indian Paths of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1971.

A reconstruction of the routes taken by Indians, fur traders, settlers, and soldiers in colonial Pennsylvania, useful to anyone wishing to retrace their steps by car or on foot today.

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America: 1754-1766. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000.

The best one-volume history of the Seven Years' War in all of its theaters, including Africa, India and Europe, as well as America.

Anderson, Niles. The Battle of Bushy Run. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1975.

A good account of the engagement that helped lift the siege of Fort Pitt during Pontiac's Rebellion.

Axtell, James. The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

A collection of essays on various dimensions of the European-Indian Encounter, including religion, warfare, captivity, and trade.

Dowd, Gregory Evans. A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle of Unity, 1745-1815. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

A history of Indian resistance to European expansion in the trans-Appalachian frontier, emphasizing the spiritual dimensions of native revivalist movements north and south of the Ohio River.

Eccles, W. J. France in America. New York: Harper & Row, 1972.

A good overview of the French colonization of North America, offering a French perspective on the Seven Years' War.

Fenn, Elizabeth J. "Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century America: Beyond Jeffery Amherst." Journal of American History:86 (March 2000): 1552-1580.

A good summary of the Fort Pitt smallpox episode, situating it in the wider context of eighteenth-century warfare in North America.

Griffin, Patrick. The People with no Name: Ireland's Ulster Scots, America's Scots Irish, and the Creation of a British Atlantic World, 1689-1764. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001.

An excellent social and cultural study of the Scots Irish emigrants who settled on the Pennsylvania frontier.

Hinderaker, Eric. Elusive Empires: Constructing Colonialism in the Ohio Valley, 1673-1800. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

An interesting history of the colonization of the Ohio Country from Native American, French, British, and American perspectives.

Hunter, William A. Forts on the Pennsylvania Frontier, 1753-1758. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1960.

A compendium of the posts and fortifications built by the Pennsylvania colonial government at the outset of the Seven Years' War.

Jennings, Francis. Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies and Tribes in the Seven Years' War in America. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998.

A history of the Seven Years' War that focuses on the North American theater, noteworthy for the author's attention to European-Indian relations, especially in Pennsylvania.

Kent, Donald H. The French Invasion of Western Pennsylvania, 1753. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1981.

A good overview of the imperial contest over the Ohio Country that ignited the Seven Years' War.

McConnell, Michael N. A Country Between:The Upper Ohio Valley and its Peoples, 1724-1774 . Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.

A good history of the Indian peoples of the Ohio Country during the era of the Seven Years' War.

Merrell, James H. Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier. New York: W. W. Norton, 1999.

A study of European-Indian relations in Pennsylvania, from the era of William Penn to the end of the Seven Years' War, with an emphasis on the native and colonial peoples who served as brokers or "go-betweens" between the two cultures.

Peckham, Howard H. Pontiac and the Indian Uprising. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1999.

Somewhat dated in approach and narrative, but still the authoritative volume on Pontiac's Rebellion.

Richter, Donald K., ed.. "Onas, the Long Knife: Pennsylvania and the Indians, 1783-1794" in Native Americans and the Early Republic., 125-161. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1999.

This essay describes the fate of Pennsylvania's Indians in the aftermath of the American Revolution and thus serves as a useful epilogue to the story of the Seven Years' War.

Shannon, Timothy J. Indians and Colonists at the Crossroads of Empire: The Albany Congress of 1754. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000.

Examines the origins of the Seven Years' War from the perspective of the Iroquois, the British Empire, and the American colonists, including Benjamin Franklin.

Stotz, Charles M. Outposts of the War for Empire: The French and English in Western Pennsylvania: Their Armies, Their Forts, Their People, 1749-1764. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1985.

A study of frontier fortifications in Pennsylvania. Emphasis on architectural history. A good resource about the design and construction of eighteenth-century forts.

Thayer, Theodore. Israel Pemberton, King of the Quakers. Philadelphia, PA: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1943.

A biography of the leading Philadelphia Quaker behind the Quakers' peace efforts with the Delawares during the Seven Years' War.

Waddell, Louis M. and Bruce D. Bomberger. The French and Indian War in Pennsylvania: Fortification and Struggle During the War for Empire. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1996.

An excellent overview of Pennsylvania's frontier fortifications and military expeditions during the Seven Years' War.

West, J. Martin. War for Empire in Western Pennsylvania. Ligonier, PA: Fort Ligonier Association, 1993.

A brief, well-researched, and copiously illustrated history of the Seven Years' War in Pennsylvania, accessible to a wide readership.

White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

A comprehensive study of the Great Lakes and Ohio frontiers during the era of colonization, from the perspective of French-allied Algonquian peoples.

Web Guide

Col. Washington's Frontier Forts Association

Dedicated to George Washington's role in the early years of the French and Indian War in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia.

Fort Ligonier Association

General information about Fort Ligonier with a brief history.

Fort Loudon Historical Society

An interesting history of Fort Loudon, along with information about facilities at the fort and the local area.

Fort Necessity National Battlefield

Information and history of Fort Necessity and its role in the Anglo-French struggle for the Ohio Country. rn

Fort Pitt Museum

Information on the history of Fort Pitt

French and Indian War 250, Inc.

A national commemoration of the 250th anniversary of the French and Indian War, with information on the history of the war in Pennsylvania and links to historical sites in the state.

Letchworth Park History, A Glimpse of Mary Jemison

A good biography of Mary Jemison and her life among the Seneca tribe. Recommended for young adults.

Ohio History Central, French and Indian War

Recommended site for children and young adults interested in the Seven Years' War and the eighteenth-century colonial frontier.

The Official Research Site for the Fortress of Louisbourg

Designed to assist in scholarly research on the French fort and community on Cape Breton Island that guarded access to the St. Lawrence River. Useful for anyone interested in the history, genealogy, or archaeology of French Canada.

The Official Web Site of Old Fort Niagara

History of Fort Niagara, a strategic link in the French route from Canada to the Ohio Country. Good for the French perspective on the Seven Years' War.

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