Story Bibliography
The Indians of Pennsylvania Bibliography
Further Reading

Adovasio, J. M and Jake Page. The First Americans: In Pursuit of Archaeology's Greatest Mystery. New York: Random House, 2002.

Discusses the current archaeological controversies about the first human migrations to the Americas, with a chapter on the Meadowcroft Rockshelter.

Adovasio, J. M. D and et al. "Two Decades of Debate on Meadowcroft Rockshelter.." North American Archaeologist 19 (1998): 317-41.

Good introduction to the prehistory of Pennsylvania's Indians, including the controversy over dating the Meadowcroft Rockshelter site.

Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766 . New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2000.

The best one-volume history of the Seven Years' War in all of its theaters, including Africa, India, and Europe as well as America.

Dowd, Gregory Evans. A Spirited Resistance: The North American Indian Struggle for Unity, 1745-1815. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

A history of Indian resistance to European expansion in the trans-Appalachian frontier, emphasizing the spiritual dimensions of native revivalist movements north and south of the Ohio River.

Dowd, Gregory Evans. War under Heaven: Pontiac, the Indian Nations, and the British Empire. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Comprehensive history of Indian war that involved Pennsylvania frontier in 1763-1764.

Grumet, Robert S., ed.. Northeastern Indian Lives, 1632-1816. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1996.

Excellent collection of brief biographies of Native Americans from early American history, including such noted Pennsylvania Indians as Moses Tunda Tatamy, Shickellamy, Pisquetomen, and Tamaqua.

Hanna, Charles A. The Wilderness Trail, or the Ventures and Adventures of Pennsylvania Traders on the Allegheny Path. New York: Reprint, AMS Press, 1971.

An old but still useful overview of the major players, towns, and routes involved in Pennsylvania's colonial era fur trade.

Heckewelder, John. History, Manners, and Customs of the Indian Nations who once inhabited Pennsylvania and the neighbouring States, revised and expanded edition. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1876.

Classic history of Pennsylvania's Indians by noted Moravian missionary; widely available in modern reprints.

Jennings, Francis. The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire: The Covenant Chain Confederation of Indian Tribes with the English Colonies from its Beginnings to the Lancaster Treaty of 1744. New York: Norton, 1984.

Good coverage of three-way contest between Iroquois, Delaware, and Penn family for control of Indian lands in colonial Pennsylvania.

Jennings, Francis. In Beyond the Covenant Chain: The Iroquois and their Neighbors in Indian North America, 1600-1800. Edited by James H. Merrell and Daniel K. Richter Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1987.

Good, brief introduction to the role of the New York Iroquois in colonial Pennsylvania's Indian affairs.

Kent, Barry C. Susquehanna's Indians. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 2001.

Definitive work on history and archaeology of the Susquehannocks, from prehistory through the destruction of Conestoga Town in 1763.

Kraft, Herbert C. The Lenape: Archaeology, History, and Ethnography. Newark: New Jersey Historical Society, 1986.

Comprehensive study of culture and archaeology of the Delaware people in New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania.

McConnell, Michael N. A Country Between: The Upper Ohio Valley and its Peoples, 1724-1774. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.

Excellent study of the Delaware, Shawnee, and Iroquois peoples who migrated into the Allegheny-Ohio watershed during the colonial era and became known collectively as the "Ohio Indians."

Merrell, James H. Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier. New York: Norton, 1999.

European-Indian relations in Pennsylvania, from the era of William Penn to the end of the Seven Years' War, with an emphasis on the native and colonial peoples who served as brokers or "go-betweens" between the two cultures.

Merritt, Jane T. At the Crossroads: Indians and Empires on the Mid-Atlantic Frontier, 1700-1763. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press,, 2003.

Investigates relationships forged between Indians, missionaries, traders, and settlers on Pennsylvania frontier during the colonial era.

Olmstead, Earl P. Blackcoats among the Delaware: David Zeisberger on the Ohio Frontier . Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1991.

Richter, Daniel K. "A Framework for Pennsylvania Indian History." Pennsylvania History 57 (1990): 236-61.

Excellent, brief overview of Pennsylvania Indian history from pre-contact to the present.

Richter, Daniel K. Native Americans' Pennsylvania. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania Historical Society , 2005.

Short comprehensive history of Native Americans in Pennsylvania from native origins to the present.

Sipe, C. Hale. Indian Wars of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg: Telegraph Press, 1929.

Two classic studies of Indians and Indian relations in early Pennsylvania.

Sipe, C. Hale. Indian Chiefs of Pennsylvania. Butler, PA: Ziegler Printing Company, 1927.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. Death and Rebirth of the Seneca. New York: Knopf, 1970.

This masterful history of the Seneca in the era of the American Revolution and the early Republic includes the story of the Cornplanter Tract, the last Native American owned land in Pennsylvania.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. Jefferson and the Indians: The Tragic Fate of the First Americans. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999.

Wallace, Anthony F. C. King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung, 1700-1763. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, Reprint, 1990.

Intriguing biography of important Delaware leader during the era of the Seven Years' War.

Wallace, Paul A. W. Indian Paths of Pennsylvania . Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1971.

Wallace, Paul A.W. Conrad Weiser, 1696-1760: Friend to Colonist and Mohawk. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1945.

A well-researched and thorough-going biography of a central figure in colonial Pennsylvania's Indian relations.

Ward, Matthew C. Breaking the Backcountry: The Seven Years' War in Virginia and Pennsylvania, 1754-1765. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2003.

Good history of the Seven Years' War from the perspective of Indians and settlers on the Pennsylvania-Virginia frontier.

Weslager, C. A. The Delaware Indians: A History . New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1972.

White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

A comprehensive study of the Great Lakes and Allegheny-Ohio frontiers during the era of colonization, from the perspective of French-allied Algonquian peoples.

Web Guide

"Meadowcroft," Heinz History Center,

Offers a brief introduction to the Meadowcroft Rockshelter, some images, and information on visiting the museum there.

Carlisle Indian Industrial School

Features images and links for historical and contemporary topics related to Indian education, including biographical information on Jim Thorpe.

Conrad Weiser Homestead,

Features biographical information on colonial Pennsylvania's most important Indian interpreter, along with information about his homestead, now a Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission site.

Delaware Tribe of Indians

Provides a good introduction to the history and contemporary life of Delaware Indians living in Oklahoma, including audio of the Delaware language.

Early Pennsylvania History: Pontiac's Rebellion, U.S.

Offers a brief summary of Pontiac's Rebellion as well as links to related topics in eighteenth-century Pennsylvania history.

Eastern Delaware Nations

Provides information on contemporary Delaware and related peoples living in Pennsylvania.

Forgotten War: The Struggle for North America

Provides a useful overview of people, places, and events associated with the French and Indian War.

Fort Ligonier Association

General information about Fort Ligonier with a brief history.

Fort Loudon Historical Society

An interesting history of Fort Loudon, along with information about facilities at the fort and the local area.

Indians of Pennsylvania and the Delaware Valley

Useful site for its coverage of the Delaware Indians and links to other sites on Delaware Indian history.

Lenni Lenape Historical Society

Provides information about the Museum of Indian Culture in Allentown, Pennsylvania.

Mary Jemison, Letchworth Park History

This web site offers a biographical sketch of one of Pennsylvania's most famous Indian captives and links to information on her family's history.

National Park Service, Fort Necessity National Battlefield

Information and history of Fort Necessity and its role in the French and Indian War and the struggle for control of the Ohio Country.

Ohio's Historic Indian Heritage, Ohio History Central

Good research materials for western Pennsylvania and Ohio Indians during the colonial and Revolutionary eras.

Ohio's Prehistoric Indian Heritage, Ohio History Central

Excellent coverage of prehistoric Indian cultures of western Pennsylvania and the Ohio Valley.

Report of the Commission to Locate the Sites of the Frontier Forts of Pennsylvania (1896), Roots

A digitized version of an illustrated 1896 report that collected histories of Pennsylvania's frontier forts.

Sullivan/Clinton Campaign, 1779-2004

Provides a multimedia history of the famous Revolutionary War campaign against the Iroquois in western Pennsylvania and New York.

The Main Indian Paths and Migration Trails in Pennsylvania

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